Nineveh - from the VIII-VII century BC. e. the capital of the Assyrian state. It was located on the territory of modern Iraq (now the city of Mosul), on the left bank of the Tigris River. During archaeological excavations that were carried out in the 1930s under the leadership of Austin Henry Layard, cultural layers were discovered, starting from the 5th millennium BC. e. The eyes of archaeologists opened marvelous ancient structures. The ancient city was a huge fortress, consisting of many massive structures and fortifications.
Assyria is an ancient militarized country, which was clearly confirmed during excavations of the palaces of the Assyrian rulers Sennakhirib and Ashurbanipal. Then found excellent reliefs, now stored in the British Museum, in London. In the Sennakhirib palace on the reliefs mainly military scenes were depicted, and in the Ashurbanipal palace - mainly hunting scenes. Also, the famous statues of winged bulls with five legs and figures of lions, the guardians of the gates, were discovered.
One of the main sights of Mosul and one of the most important finds is the Yezidi Lalesh temple, the shape of the domes of which symbolizes the sun's rays falling on the ground the colossal palace of King Ashurbanipal (VIII-VII centuries BC), the palace of Sinaherib - the famous founder of the city the imperial Kuyundzhik library with a huge collection of cuneiform tablets (it was here that the text of the poem about Gilgamesh was first found) fortress walls with a total length of 15 kilometers. And, of course, among the finds there are diverse sculptural monuments with their own unique symbolism.
Location: Mosul, Ninewa, Iraq
Coordinates: N 36.35329200, east 43.12603700
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- شهر سوق,
- شيخ ابو العلا,
- دورة اللاتين,
- م.عمو البقال,
- دورة اللاتين,
- م. الرابعية.
Nineveh is known as a settlement from the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. e. . Since ancient times, it has been known as the location of Amishmish, the temple of the goddess Ishtar. One of its first temples was destroyed by an earthquake and rebuilt under the Akkadian king Manistushu. Nineveh is mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions of the period of Shamshiadad I.
Then (in the XV — XIV centuries BC) it was ruled by the state of Mitanni, a statue of the patron goddess of the city of Ishtar was sent to the Pharaoh Amenhotep III by the mitten king. Around 1365 BC e. Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I established his sovereignty over Nineveh.
The capital of the Assyrian state of Nineveh becomes at the end of the VIII-VII centuries BC. e. during the reign of Sinaheherib, who transferred his throne to Nineveh from Dur Sharrukin. At this time, the city stretched 4 km along the Tigris, its main street, the so-called procession road, was 26 m wide. The city had a strict layout, which developers were forbidden to violate by special order source not specified 1356 days .
After the death of Ashurbanipal, the decline of the Assyrian Empire and its capital began. In 612 BC e. Nineveh was destroyed by the combined army of the Babylonians and the Medes, who kept it under siege for two years.
Nineveh is mentioned as the site of the main battle of the Iran-Byzantine war in 627 AD. e. At this point, the city had long been desolate, and Mosul, based on the opposite bank, became its actual successor.
Ancient Greek mythology connected the foundation of Nineveh with the eponymous king Ninus.